People sequence a genome for lots of reasons. For instance,
You are trying to assemble a genome for a previously unsequenced species.
You are interested in the frequency of alleles in a population containing several individuals
You are trying to figure out where certain chromatin-associated proteins (histones or transcription factors for instance) bind to DNA: ChIP-seq
You are interested in where chromatin-associated proteins DO NOT bind to DNA: FAIRE-seq, DNAse-seq
Your sequenced DNA is actually cDNA created via some RNA-seq experiment. A few things you might be trying to do: identify transcription start sites or analyse the transciptome throughout development or in response to changes in the environment
I can assure you that pages and pages can be written about every numbered statement I have made. Perhaps you can narrow down what you will be expected to do in a month to one of the things on my list.
I remember when I first started working in bioinformatics, I would get tasks where I was told our lab had some data and I just needed to 'analyze' it. So, if this is what happened for you, I sympathize. Unfortunately, good bioinformatics typically requires a lot more specificity. The first thing to do is define the biological question, then you can define the bioinformatic question.
i think your question is too general. It's a bit like asking for a quick summary of the downstream analysis of radio signals. Genomic DNA is analysed in many ways.
Roughly speaking sequencing machines give you chunks of DNA. You then either try and match them to known things, or reconstruct them. You might try to infer things
about how much there is.
Things to look up
- variant calling
The book on DNA analysis by Simon Tavare is a good place to get basic knowledge on genomes and how they are analysed,
plus any of many online tutorials.