I would suggest two avenues to quickly coming up to speed in phylogenetics.
1) Checkout or buy "Inferring Phylogenies" by Joseph Felsenstein.
2) Start simulating population data using available software and examINE what the phylogenies look like under different population parameters.
It's not a review article, but the Phylogenetic Trees Made Easy book is best beginner tutorial you can get. It walks you through all the basics. I think most people can work through the book in a week or so. The third edition has ~ 200 pages. From the table of contents:
Ch. 1 - Introduction
Ch. 2 - Creating your first tree
Ch. 3 - Getting and aligning sequences
Ch. 4 - Neighbor-joining trees
Ch. 5 - Drawing phylogenetic trees
Ch. 6 - Parsimony
Ch. 7 - Maximum likelihood
Ch. 8 - Bayesian inference
Ch. 9 - Reconstructing ancestral sequences
Ch. 10 - Detection adaptive evolution
Ch. 11 - Computer platforms
It is not unreasonable to work through this book in a matter of days.
Hope that helps.
My book suggestion is a newish book, Tree Thinking, which just came out this year. I think that it's hands down the best text book for those beginning to understand phylogenetics (undergraduate level course in phylogenetics & cladistics). Reading Joe Felsenstein's book is the step after reading and fully understanding this book.