How To Convert Gencode Gtf Into Bed Format ?
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6
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9.0 years ago
biorepine ★ 1.5k

I have tried this script but did not work.

<script src="&lt;a href=" 1155568"="">1155568"></script>
Do you guys have any working method to convert gtf in to bed format ?

Thanx

gtf bed • 44k views
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16
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8.7 years ago

BEDOPS includes a gtf2bed conversion utlity, which is lossless in that it permits reconversion back to GTF after, for example, applying set and statistical operations with bedops, bedmap, etc.:

$ gtf2bed < foo.gtf > foo.bed

Apply some operations, perhaps to build a subset of elements that overlap some ad-hoc regions-of-interest, e.g.:

$ bedops --element-of 1 foo.bed regions_of_interest.bed > foo_subset.bed

To reconvert, a simple awk statement puts columns back into GTF-ordering, along with the correct, 1-based coordinate index adjustment:

$ awk `{ print $1"\t"$7"\t"$8"\t"($2+1)"\t"$3"\t"$5"\t"$6"\t"$9"\t"(substr($0, index($0,$10))) }' foo_subset.bed > foo_subset.gtf
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gtf2bed from bedops do not work for GENCODE comprehensive gtf file if there are features without transcript ID in the attributes:

convert2bed -i gtf < gencode.v27lift37.annotation.gtf > gencode.v27lift37.annotation.bed    
Error: Potentially missing gene or transcript ID from GTF attributes (malformed GTF at line [1]?)
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0
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This is a long-standing problem with research groups putting out malformed GTF for some still-unexplained reason. See A: BEDOPS gtf2bed conversion error with Ensembl GTF for a potential solution.

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0
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Had this today. The solution that worked for me was: cat input.gtf.gz | gunzip - | grep transcript_id | grep gene_id | convert2bed --do-not-sort --input=gtf - > output.bed

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The gawk command to make BED to GTF is fine. However, it would be a complete round trip of convenience if there is bed2gtf command in BEDOPS :)

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It would require some assumptions about how conversion was done. So long as the BED data were created with gtf2bed, it would be easier to make those assumptions, however.

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9
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5.3 years ago
endrebak ▴ 870

My solution, based on Ian's answer:

zcat ../../../data/annotations/gencode.v24.annotation.gtf.gz |  awk 'OFS="\t" {if ($3=="gene") {print $1,$4-1,$5,$10,$16,$7}}' | tr -d '";' | head
chr1    11868   14408   ENSG00000223972.5       .       +
chr1    14403   29569   ENSG00000227232.5       .       -
chr1    17368   17435   ENSG00000278267.1       .       -
chr1    29553   31108   ENSG00000243485.3       .       +
chr1    30365   30502   ENSG00000274890.1       .       +
chr1    34553   36080   ENSG00000237613.2       .       -
chr1    52472   53311   ENSG00000268020.3       .       +
chr1    62947   63886   ENSG00000240361.1       .       +
chr1    69090   70007   ENSG00000186092.4       .       +
chr1    89294   133722  ENSG00000238009.6       .       -

Gives you all the genes, with their name, in bed format.

You can use the score field to store other info you are interested in, like the common gene name:

zcat ../../../data/annotations/gencode.v24.annotation.gtf.gz |  awk 'OFS="\t" {if ($3=="gene") {print $1,$4-1,$5,$10,$16,$7}}' | tr -d '";' | head
chr1    11868   14408   ENSG00000223972.5       DDX11L1 +
chr1    14403   29569   ENSG00000227232.5       WASH7P  -
chr1    17368   17435   ENSG00000278267.1       MIR6859-1       -
chr1    29553   31108   ENSG00000243485.3       RP11-34P13.3    +
chr1    30365   30502   ENSG00000274890.1       MIR1302-2       +
chr1    34553   36080   ENSG00000237613.2       FAM138A -
chr1    52472   53311   ENSG00000268020.3       OR4G4P  +
chr1    62947   63886   ENSG00000240361.1       OR4G11P +
chr1    69090   70007   ENSG00000186092.4       OR4F5   +
chr1    89294   133722  ENSG00000238009.6       RP11-34P13.7    -
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6
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I think there's a mistake in your solution. GTF files are 1-based and inclusive on both sides of the interval; BED is 0-based and non-inclusive on the right. Thus to convert GTF interval directly to BED interval, you need to do ($4-1,$5) - not ($4-1,$5-1).

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1
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Thanks, changed my answer :)

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0
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good and easy solution

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3
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9.0 years ago
Ian 5.8k

You could use a simple AWK one-liner (Linux):

$ cat file.gtf | awk '{print $1,$4,$5,"name",$6,$7}'

$1 is the first column of your TAB delimited GTF file, $2 is the second column, $3 is the third, etc. Not sure what you would use a name, I guess you could use $3.

EDIT:

If you don't like the command line then Galaxy has a tool "ConvertFormats > GFF-to-BED". The tool does use $3 as the name.

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gtf format is 1-based start: http://www.ensembl.org/info/website/upload/gff.html

bed format is 0-based start: https://genome.ucsc.edu/FAQ/FAQformat.html#format1

So this solution will get all coordinates wrong by one base.

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0
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But I need the full BED (BED12) that include exon information. The awk liner gives only transcript start and end but not exon start and end.

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0
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If the information is delimited by tabs you should be able to add to the awk command... I admit i am not overly familiar with GTF.

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GTF annotates transcript and exon information in separate rows. If you use awk to print just columns what you get is start end of exon or transcript separately but not together as in BED12 format http://genome.ucsc.edu/FAQ/FAQformat.html.

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3.8 years ago
zoegward ▴ 120

I found this handy link for bed files: https://github.com/stevekm/reference-annotations

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its worth noting that the Makefile there was developed based on the answers here

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Does not work anymore. $ make ensembl-hg38 wget ftp://ftp.ensembl.org/pub/release-91/gtf/homo_sapiens/Homo_sapiens.GRCh38.91.chr.gtf.gz --2021-03-02 12:19:45-- ftp://ftp.ensembl.org/pub/release-91/gtf/homo_sapiens/Homo_sapiens.GRCh38.91.chr.gtf.gz => 'Homo_sapiens.GRCh38.91.chr.gtf.gz' Resolving ftp.ensembl.org ftp.ensembl.org)... 193.62.197.76 Connecting to ftp.ensembl.org ftp.ensembl.org)|193.62.197.76|:21... connected. Logging in as anonymous ... Logged in! ==> SYST ... done. ==> PWD ... done. ==> TYPE I ... done. ==> CWD (1) /pub/release-91/gtf/homo_sapiens ... done. ==> SIZE Homo_sapiens.GRCh38.91.chr.gtf.gz ... 41854359 ==> PASV ... done. ==> RETR Homo_sapiens.GRCh38.91.chr.gtf.gz ... done. Length: 41854359 (40M) (unauthoritative)

100%[=========================================================================>] 41,854,359 1.25MB/s in 23s

2021-03-02 12:20:10 (1.75 MB/s) - 'Homo_sapiens.GRCh38.91.chr.gtf.gz' saved [41854359]

zcat Homo_sapiens.GRCh38.91.chr.gtf.gz | grep -Ev '^#' | grep -w 'gene' | sed -e 's/^/chr/' -e 's/^chrMT/chrM/' > Homo_sapiens.GRCh38.91.chr.gtf gtf2bed < Homo_sapiens.GRCh38.91.chr.gtf > Homo_sapiens.GRCh38.91.chr.bed Error: Potentially missing gene or transcript ID from GTF attributes (malformed GTF at line [1]?) make: * [Makefile:75: Homo_sapiens.GRCh38.91.chr.bed] Error 61 rm Homo_sapiens.GRCh38.91.chr.gtf Homo_sapiens.GRCh38.91.chr.gtf.gz

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